Before the conversion to Christianity, Heathen understandings of “right” and “wrong” were negotiated, lived out, and passed down in societies that were profoundly different from our own. These cultural differences can create confusion and misunderstanding when modern Heathens look to “the lore” for ethical guidance. This session will start with an overview of how ethical thinking in Western Europe has changed over time and how that has created unconscious assumptions that many of us carry. Panelists will then offer some thoughts about how we can usefully think about developing an ethical framework that meets the needs of Heathens today. Finally, we will invite the audience into a general discussion about ethics in modern Heathenry.